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Resources Guide

Supplemental Resources:
                  Adaptive Technology

The National Center for Technology Innovation - features monthly videos of key thought leaders in assistive technology at

AbleNet –

Talk Tools –

Cranium –

Sammons & Preston –

Onion Mountain –

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences –

Sensory Edge –

Dycem –

Reading Resources:

Slow and Steady, Get Me Ready 
June R. Oberlander, Xulon Press, Fairfax, VA

A great resource for parents and caretakers who want to provide a stimulating environment and appropriate activities for infants and young children. Developmentally appropriate (and fun) activities are provided for children from 26 weeks to five years of age. As the author is well aware, infants and children develop at different rates, so the developmental age of an activity is approximate. On the other hand, parents of children with developmental delays and professionals who assist these parents have found it very useful to have the activities in a developmental sequence. This sequence, although approximate, can help in the selection of the next activities that may be successfully introduced to the child.

This book is easy to use with clear directions and utilizes widely available materials. The author suggests daily activities, but even as a weekly or occasional supplement, the book is a valuable resource.

Hands-on Math, Manipulative Math for Young Children
Janet Stone, Good Year Books, Parsippany, NJ

When adults think of math for young children, they usually think of counting and recognizing numerals, but math is much more. That is why Hands-on Math, Manipulative Math for Young Children is so helpful for both parents and teachers: it expands the world of math the adult while assisting with the instruction of the children. As is stated in the introduction, “The world of mathematics for young children can and should be a world of inquiry, exploration and discovery.” Three- through six-year-olds can be gifted explorers when given appropriate opportunities.

Clear guidelines are supplied for the activities such as the mini-sections labeled; “To Use,” To Do,” To Be Gained” and To Discuss.” This book can assist the teacher or parent even if the adults are not experienced in hands-on learning of math. While this book is directed primarily at a classroom teacher, it can also be used by parents and by therapists to help children develop confidence and competence in exploring math.

Family Math for Young Children: Comparing
Grace Dávila Coates and Jean Kerr Stenmark
Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA

Family Math is both a book and a program developed by the EQUALS project at Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley. Since 1977, this project has been helping educators and families learn hands-on methods and use hands-on materials to make math more accessible to children. Family Math for Young Children is a recent addition to the Family Math series that has been acclaimed by parents and educators of all backgrounds. The format is very easy to use with headings such as “This is About,” “You Will Need,” “Getting Ready” and Activity.”

While the book is about “math,” this is math in the broadest cross-curricular sense; where almost all activities in life can be considered to have a math aspect. There is a strong emphasis on communication, so language arts and verbal skills are an integral part of the process. This book was designed for families however, it provides great activities to reinforce learning from computer activities.

Revised Edition, National Association for the Education of Young Children  
NAEYC, 1997, Bredekamp, Sue; Copple, Carol, Editors 

Includes guidelines for developing and implementing developmentally appropriate curricula.

Originally published in 1986, this revised edition “represents NAEYC’s current best understanding of theory and research regarding how children learn, as well as shared beliefs about what practices are most supportive and respectful of children’s healthy development (p. v1).” The first part of this book reprints NAEYC’s 1996 Position Statement on Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. Part 2 discusses the development of the definition of DAP (Developmentally Appropriate Practice), and how this relates to individual differences, as well as social and cultural contexts. Parts 3-5 apply these definitions, concepts and practices to three age groups: infants and toddlers, age three through five and six through eight.

The editors present an invitation to look for ways to improve our understanding and implementation of agreed-upon goals. This is a work in progress and no one will be surprised if there is a revision every 10 years. The curricula for Playground Discovery is based on our best understanding of DAP and owes a great deal to NAEYC’s continuing effort to make DAP a reality. Part 4, which considers development and learning in children aged three through five, was particularly helpful in developing specific approaches and curriculum.

Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum, Best Practices in Early Childhood  
3rd. Ed., Pearson Education, 2004
Kostelnik, Marjorie J.; Soderman, Anne K.; Whiren, Alice P.

Includes discussion of domains of learning, and goals and objectives appropriate for each domain.
Parts 1 and 2 include a review of DAP and how development, individuality and culture can be best served in the learning environment. Part 3 on Curriculum cites six learning domains and intermediate objectives needed to achieve competence in each domain. (The six are: Aesthetic, Affective, Cognitive, Language, Physical and Social.) Part 4 discusses implementing an integrated curriculum including multiple domains, process and content goals.

The goals and objectives of Part 3 were the starting point for the development of
Playground Discovery Scope and Sequence. The tremendous importance of process goals in the therapeutic environment is very clearly related to the inclusion of content goals. “In fact, during the early childhood period, often the content included in each activity is simply the medium through which children explore other, more process-oriented operations and skills (p. 435).”

Educating Exceptional Children
9th Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000
Kirk, Samuel; Gallagher, James J.; Anastasiow, Nicholas J.

A comprehensive discussion of  "exceptional children,” their needs, their “intra-
individual differences” (p. 9), their developmental profiles and their ecological and cultural environments. In addition, there are discussions of possible educational
adaptations including adapting the environment, the teaching strategy and the
curriculum and the use of technology to assist in these adaptations.
Especially useful because of the sections on educational adaptations.

Play in Occupational Therapy for Children
Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1997, Parham, L. Diane; Fazio, Linda S.

A survey of the theory and benefits of play including assessment of play and the use of assistive technology in play. The articles in Part II, “Assessment of Play,” help in considering how to assess process goals and enhance play value.

Recommended Websites:

Computers in the Early Childhood Classroom, Susan Haugland
A comprehensive and perceptive article. Topics include computer placement, software selection, teacher interaction, supporting activities, teacher training and support and outstanding software.

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC),
School Readiness
Excellent source of position statements, resources and reports on school readiness, DAP, early childhood curriculum and early learning standards and assessment.

The Maryland Model for School Readiness: Cognition and General Knowledge
The Maryland Model for School Readiness (MMSR) is an assessment and instructional system designed to provide parents, teachers and early childhood providers with a common understanding of what children know and are able to do upon entering school. MMSR incorporates research-based instruction, age-appropriate assessment of children’s learning and effective communication among teachers, parents and early childhood providers.

The cognitive goals listed by this site were especially helpful. The Maryland link is
representative of the many excellent resources outlining goals and objectives for many other states including New Jersey and Virginia.

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